What is B12?
The nutrition world refers to B12 as cobalamin. This vitamin was discovered much later than the others and is the most chemically complex vitamin. Vitamin B12 is extremely essential to develop your overall health.
It is the most neglected vitamin but the most essential that you must include in your diet. The best vitamin B12 protects your brain cells, nerves from any damage caused by free radicals. It also produces much-needed energy for your body.
When B12 combines with other vitamin B family it improves immune function, boosts energy levels and protects the cardiovascular system. The human body needs adequate B12 to make red blood cells and carry oxygen throughout your body. It also helps to create and regulate DNA.
Different types of B12
B12 is a unique vitamin as compared to other vitamins. This is because, it is the only vitamin that comprises of metal ion –cobalt. No wonder, it is popularly known as cobalamin.
This vitamin is a combination of two enzymes, namely-methyl malonyl-CoA mutase, and methionine synthase. Any molecule attached to cobalamin is named as a donor. You will note that the best vitamin B12 supplements comprise of these two donors- cyanide (made from cyano B12 or cyanocobalamin B12) and the methyl (made from methylcobalamin B12 or methyl B12).
You may also come across other B12 forms like adenosylcobalamin and hydroxocobalamin. You can observe traces of these donors in your food but in varied proportions. Adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin are the most active within your body.
You can find traces of methylcobalamin in your cytosol cells, blood plasma, and other body fluids. On the contrary, you will find adenosylcobalamin in cellular tissues where it is deposited in the mitochondria.
You can have a quick glance at which is the best vitamin B12 to choose from:
Methylcobalamin is one of the two active donors and is a natural form of vitamin B12. Methyl groups are created in your body with the help of crucial chemical reactions. These groups help you to maintain health.
Methyl B12 travels through several potential tissues in the absorption cycle. It also aids people suffering from degenerative neurological symptoms. High doses of methylcobalamin are used to treat Parkinson’s, and other multiple scleroses.
Methyl B12 also helped to regenerate nerves and treat peripheral neuropathies. An improvement in memory has been noticed when people suffering from Alzheimer’s have been provided with the best vitamin B12.
Adenosylcobalamin is obtained as the mitochondrial form of B12. Most of the B12 reserves are stored in the liver in the form of adenosylcobalamin. As and when the need arises they are transformed into methylcobalamin.
A study suggests that adenosylcobalamin and carnitine supported cerebral mass growth. Carnitine and adenosylcobalamin in the patient’s body resulted in the normal functioning of gastro intestine and weight gain. The patients felt less exhausted and this also improved their mental performance.
Yet another study proved that 37 patients suffering from viral hepatitis were treated with either cyanocobalamin or adenosylcobalamin. The researchers had discovered that adenosylcobalamin is effective for normalizing total bilirubin, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and alkaline phosphate values.
Vitamin B12 rich food mainly consists of hydroxocobalamin. This is an inactive form of vitamin B12 but is considered a better version as compared to cyano B12.
As compared to cyano B12, hydroxocobalamin can retain longer in the blood, higher kinship to plasma protein and has a longer half-life. This form of vitamin B12 is usually preferred as an antidote for cyanide toxicity. They are safely used in tobacco amblyopia cases on pernicious anemia patients along with optic neuropathy.
Hydroxocobalamin can be later on transformed into methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin. The transition process is quick.
Cyanocobalamin is a synthetic, cheap, mildly-toxic donor. It is an inactive form of B12 and is mostly used for commercial purposes. Since the cyanide molecules have the greatest attraction to the cobalamin they are the most stable as compared to other forms of vitamin B12. However, it lacks the absorption feature and needs a helping hand from the methyl group to detoxify it.
There are occasional instances when cyano B12 does absorb and gets transformed into hydroxocobalamin. In due process, the cyanide gets eliminated and gets converted to adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin.
Since cyanocobalamin is available at a cheaper price it is usually the preferred choice for various vitamin d3 supplements. However, this supplement is likely to be effective only if there is a methylation reaction to cut the cyanide. This will transform vitamin in an absorbable form and can hence be utilized by your body.
The best vitamin B12 are active donors- adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin as they are highly effective. You can consume supplements that comprise of these donors.
However, it is recommended that you seek the approval of an expert. They can guide you with the necessary information and consumption pattern.